We recently had a Toshiba Satellite laptop in the shop that we needed to replace a hard drive in due to failure. Things went well until we tried to update Windows. No matter what we did, we were faced with the message "Windows cannot check for updates because the service is not running. You may need to restart your computer." Another symptom was that Windows Defender could not update either (mostly due to the fact that it uses Windows Update to receive them).
So, after a bit of research, it appeared that our particular case was possibly due to the need for an update to the "Intel Rapid Storage Technology Driver". This Toshiba did have an Intel chipset and Intel graphics, so it sounded reasonable.